Bibliography


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A descriptive analysis of referral sources for gifted identification screening by race and socioeconomic status. McBee, Matthew T.. Journal of secondary giftededucation, Winter2006, Vol. 17 Issue 2, p103-111, 9p

A dataset containing demographic information, gifted nomination status, and gifted identification status for all elementary school students in the state of Georgia (N = 705,074) was examined. The results indicated that automatic and teacher referrals were much more valuable than other referral sources. Asian and White students were much more likely to be nominated than Black or Hispanic students. Students receiving free or reduced-price lunches were much less likely to be nominated than students paying for their own lunches. The results suggest that inequalities in nomination, rather than assessment, may be the primary source of the underrepresentation of minority and low-SES students in gifted programs.

Navigating schooled numeracies: Explanations for low achievement, in mathematics of UK children from lowSES background. Baker, Dave; Street, Brian; Tomlin, Alison. Mathematical thinking & learning, 2006, Vol. 8 Issue 3, p287-307, 21p; DOI: 10.1207/s15327833mtl0803_5

The intention of the research reported here was to seek explanations for low achievement in school mathematics, as conventionally assessed, that derive from broad understandings of mathematics as social. Such a broad social perspective can provide explanations for low achievement, which could lead to different understandings and hence to different teaching approaches. This study centered on 5- to 8-year-old children from a White working-class area in England. Data were collected during visits to the children in school, in their homes, and in the broader community over a 3-year period. Parents, teachers, and other professionals in the broad school context were interviewed, and data were also collected from school documents and policy statements. Interpretations of these data in terms of ways of understanding children's achievements in school mathematics are put forward. The potential effects of these factors on low schooled numeracy attainment are discussed, together with some possible strategic implications for practice and policy.


So young and already victims of stereotype threat: Socio-economic status and performance of 6 to 9 years old children on raven's progressive matrices. Désert, Michel; Préaux, Marie; Jund, Robin. European journal of psychology of education - EJPE (Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada), Jun2009, Vol. 24 Issue 2, p207-218, 12p

The aim of this study was to verify whether children from low socio-economic status (SES) are victims of stereotype threat. Children in first grade (6 to 7 years old) and third grade (8 to 9 years old) performed Raven's progressive matrices, an intellectual ability test commonly used by psychologists. The test was presented either with the (evaluative) instructions recommended by Raven et al, (1998) or with non evaluative instructions. Children's SES and beliefs concerning differences of abilities at school as a function of SES were also assessed. The results indicated that, as early as first grade, participants believed that children from high SES are better at school than children from low SES. Furthermore, low SES participants 'performance on the Raven's matrices was lower in the evaluative condition than in the non-evaluative condition. The experimental instructions did not affect high SES participants' performance. The discussion explores implications of these results in the use of standardized
tests to assess the intellectual abilities of low SES children.

Developmental and evolutionary assumptions in a study about the impact of premature birth and low income on mother–infant interaction. Fuertes, marina; Faria, Anabela; Soares, Hélia; Crittenden, Patricia. Acta Ethologica, Apr2009, Vol. 12 Issue 1, p1-11, 11p, 5 Charts; DOI: 10.1007/s10211-008-0051-4

In order to study the impact of premature birth and
low income on mother–infant interaction, four Portuguese samples were gathered: full-term, middle-class ( n = 99); premature, middle-class ( n = 63); full-term, low income ( n = 22); and premature, low income ( n = 21). Infants were filmed in a free play situation with their mothers, and the results were scored using the CARE Index. By means of multinomial regression analysis, social economic status (SES) was found to be the best predictor of maternal sensitivity and infant cooperative behavior within a set of medical and social factors. Contrary to the expectations of the cumulative risk perspective, two factors of risk (premature birth together with low SES) were as negative for mother–infant interaction as low SES solely. In this study, as previous studies have shown, maternal sensitivity and infant cooperative behavior were highly correlated, as was maternal control with infant compliance. Our results further indicate that, when maternal lack of responsiveness is high, the infant displays passive behavior, whereas when the maternal lack of responsiveness is medium, the infant displays difficult behavior. Indeed, our findings suggest that, in these cases, the link between types of maternal and infant interactive behavior is more dependent on the degree of maternal lack of responsiveness than it is on birth status or SES. The results will be discussed under a developmental and evolutionary reasoning.

Teacher effects and the achievement gap: Do teacher and teaching quality influence the achievement gap between black and white and high- and low-SES students in the early grades? DESIMONE, LAURA M.; LONG, DANIEL. Teachers college record, Dec2010, Vol. 112 Issue 12, p3024-3075, 50p

Background/Context: Although there is relative agreement on the pattern of the achievement gap, attributing changes in the gap to schooling is less clear. Our study contributes to understanding potential teacher and teaching effects on achievement and inequality. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: We intend our work to contribute to understanding the school's role in addressing the achievement gap. We investigate the extent to which specific aspects of teacher quality (
degree in math, experience, certification, math courses, and professional development) and teaching quality (time spent on math instruction and conceptual, basic procedural, and advanced procedural instruction) influence mathematics achievement growth and the achievement gap between White and Black students and low- and high-SES students in kindergarten and first grade. Research Design, Data Collection and Analysis: In this secondary analysis, we examine the first four waves of data from the National Center for Education Statistics 'Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (2000), a nationally representative longitudinal sample of students who were kindergartners in 1998. We use multilevel growth models to estimate relationships. Findings/Results: We found evidence that lower achieving students are initially assigned to teachers who emphasize basic instruction, and higher achieving students are assigned teachers who emphasize more advanced instruction. The use of advanced procedural instruction and time spent on math were related to achievement growth for traditionally disadvantaged populations--Black students and low-SES students. Other types of instruction and teacher quality variables were not related to achievement growth. Conclusions/Recommendations: We found weak or no effects for teacher quality and type of instruction, which suggests that these aspects of teacher and teaching quality may operate as sorting variables. This may explain a part of the findings of past cross-sectional and gain studies that would likely interpret correlations between teachers and teaching as part of the effect of instruction. We found that low achievers lend to get teachers who spend less time on instruction, a variable we found significant in influencing achievement growth. If, as our study found, time on instruction matters, and disadvantaged students are more likely to get the weakest teachers who spend less lime on instruction, we can identify an area in which schooling exacerbates the achievement gap but has the potential to ameliorate it.

The impact of religious schools on the academic achievement of low-SES students. Jeynes, William H.. Journal of empirical theology, 2005, Vol. 18 Issue 1, p22-40, 19p, 5 Charts; DOI: 10.1163/1570925054048965

Schools have a function to qualify pupils for the
job market. Schools are often criticized because they reproduce the socio-economic inequality within society. Pupils of lower social strata have learning deficiencies at the start of their school career which put them in an unfavorable position. From their social background, pupils have a different idea of function of education and their parents are less supportive to their children with regard to excellence in learning. If schools have a mission with regard to the amelioration of society (Dewey), what can they do to improve the situation of pupils who are most in need? Do religiously affiliated schools have a special mission for the poor and needy? And if they do, how is their record with regard to this mission? What are the strengths and weaknesses of religiously affiliated schools in this mission for the poor and needy?

The homework experience: Perceptions of low-income youth. Bempechat, Janine; Jin Li; Neier, Shelby M.; Gillis, Caroline A.; Holloway, Susan D.. Journal of advanced academics, Winter2011, Vol. 22 Issue 2, p250-278, 29p, 2 Charts

Homework is a cornerstone of students'
academic lives. Using a social cognitive view of achievement beliefs as a theoretical framework, we conducted a qualitative study to examine perceptions of homework among a diverse group of low socioeconomic status (SES) ninth graders who attended low-quality schools. Students participated in individual interviews and their average 9th- and 10th-grade GPAs were collected from school records. Their comments reflected complexity and nuance with respect to their achievement goals. Although higher and lower achievers shared some common views about what constituted enjoyable and disagreeable homework, differences emerged in how they expressed their commitment to their work and their engagement in their learning. Students overall did not have much assigned homework, and reported little or no consequences if they did not complete their assigned tasks. In the face of these low teacher expectations, higher achievers maintained a commitment to learning, and lower achievers were indifferent. Higher achievers were engaged in their assigned tasks and expressed a desire to learn, whereas their lower achieving peers were detached and avoidant. Despite very different beliefs about and approaches to homework, both higher and lower achievers signaled their need for support in their learning. Students need to believe that homework is meaningful and that teachers value it enough to design high-quality assignments and monitor their completion. Lower achieving students need ongoing attention and guidance from their teachers in order to find relevance in and see the value of homework tasks. Teachers can meet this challenge in part by enlisting and supporting family members and peers in the homework process.

Effects of student gender and socioeconomic status on teacher perceptions. Auwarter, Amy E.; Aruguete, Mara S.. Journal of educational research, Mar/Apr2008, Vol. 101 Issue 4, p242-246, 5p, 1 Chart

The authors examined experimentally whether student gender and socioeconomic status (SES) affect teachers' expectations of students. Participants were 106 teachers who read a scenario about a hypothetical student with
academic and behavioral challenges. The authors systematically varied the gender and SES of the student to create 4 conditions. Teachers rated high-SES boys more favorably than low-SES boys, but low-SES girls more favorably than high-SES girls. Teachers perceived that low-SES students have less promising futures than do high-SES students. Findings suggest that teachers are likely to develop negative attitudes toward low-SES students in general, but especially boys. These preconceived attitudes may help explain why teacher efficacy tends to be lower in economically disadvantaged schools.

Developmental differences in prosocial motives and behavior in children from low-socioeconomic status families. McGrath, Marianne P.; Brown, Bethany C.. Journal of genetic psychology, Mar2008, Vol. 169 Issue 1, p5-20, 16p, 1 Chart, 1 Graph

Developmental theories of prosocial reasoning and behavior posit a transition from concrete (e.g., give a toy to receive one) to abstract (e.g., spend time to make someone happy) forms and have been supported with research on middle-socioeconomic status (SES), White samples. The methodology that researchers have used to date has restricted the responses that children can offer. In the present study, 122 Grade 2 and Grade 4 children from low-SES families described different types of motives and behavior and whether a conflict existed between self- and other-serving behaviors.The authors found developmental differences for both abstract and tangible motives that focused on the benefactor of
prosocial behavior. Grade 2 girls and Grade 4 boys were the most likely to spontaneously describe a conflict between self- and other-serving behaviors.
THE EFFECT OF INDIVIDUALLY CONTRACTED INCENTIVES ON INTELLIGENCE TEST PERFORMANCE OF MIDDLE- AND LOW-SES CHILDREN. Kieffer, David A.; Goh, David S.. Journal of Clinical Psychology, Jan1981, Vol. 37 Issue 1, p175-179, 5p

The article investigates the effect of individually contracted incentives on Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children performance of elementary school children. The professional literature yields an abundance of research on the effects of various incentives on intelligence test performance of children with different cultural and socioeconomic (SES) backgrounds. Typically, in a study in which material and/or social incentives of various types are employed, their effects on different individuals are compared to determine the relationship between particular incentives and test performance for middle-or-low-SES children.


Verbal measures of cognitive ability: The giftedlowSES student's albatross. Tyler-Wood, Tandra; Carri, Louis. Roeper Review, Dec93, Vol. 16 Issue 2, p102, 4p, 1 Chart

Examines the effect of test bias on the identification of low socioeconomic status (SES) children for placement in gifted programs. Recommendation of children for gifted placement; Comparison of test scores between low and average SES children; Low verbal scores of low SES children.


A descriptive analysis of referral sources for gifted identification screening by race and socioeconomic status. McBee, Matthew T.. Journal of secondary gifted education, Winter2006, Vol. 17 Issue 2, p103-111, 9p

A dataset containing demographic information, gifted nomination status, and gifted identification status for all elementary school students in the state of Georgia (N = 705,074) was examined. The results indicated that automatic and teacher referrals were much more valuable than other referral sources. Asian and White students were much more likely to be nominated than Black or Hispanic students. Students receiving free or reduced-price lunches were much less likely to be nominated than students paying for their own lunches. The results suggest that inequalities in nomination, rather than assessment, may be the primary source of the underrepresentation of minority and low-SES students in gifted programs.


Socioeconomic status effects on using the naglieri nonverbal ability test (NNAT) to identify the gifted/talented. Carman, Carol A.; Taylor, Debra K.. Gifted Child Quarterly, Apr2010, Vol. 54 Issue 2, p75-84, 10p, 2 Charts; DOI: 10.1177/0016986209355976

The Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test (NNAT) is said to be a culturally neutral measure of ability that assesses both majority and minority students equally. Although research has examined the effects of ethnicity and gender on NNAT performance, little published research has examined the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and NNAT performance. Correlations and multiple regression were used to examine the relationships between ethnicity, SES, and NNAT performance in a large kindergarten sample. The results suggest a significant relationship between ethnicity, SES, and NNAT performance. Even after adjusting for ethnic differences, children from low-SES families were half as likely as other children to be identified.


THE EFFECT OF INDIVIDUALLY CONTRACTED INCENTIVES ON INTELLIGENCE TEST PERFORMANCE OF MIDDLE- AND LOW-SES CHILDREN.Full Text Available By: Kieffer, David A.; Goh, David S.. Journal of Clinical Psychology, Jan1981, Vol. 37 Issue 1, p175-179, 5p

The article investigates the effect of individually contracted incentives on Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children performance of elementary school children. The professional literature yields an abundance of research on the effects of various incentives on intelligence test performance of children with different cultural and socioeconomic (SES) backgrounds. Typically, in a study in which material and/or social incentives of various types are employed, their effects on different individuals are compared to determine the relationship between particular incentives and test performance for middle-or-low-SES children.


Social class is dead. Long live social class! stereotype threat among low socioeconomic status individuals. Spencer, Bettina; Castano, Emanuele. Social justice research, Dec2007, Vol. 20 Issue 4, p418-432, 15p, 1 Graph; DOI: 10.1007/s11211-007-0047-7

Stereotype threat effects occur when members of a stigmatized group perform poorly on a task because they fear confirming a negative stereotype that is associated with their ingroup. The present study investigates whether the observed achievement gap in standardized testing between high- and low-socioeconomic status (SES) American students can be due, in part, to this phenomenon. Participants were placed in one of four conditions that varied in level of “threat” related to socioeconomic status. Results show that when socioeconomic identity is made salient before taking a test, or when the test is presented as diagnostic of intelligence, low-SES students perform significantly worse, and report much lower self-confidence, than low-SES participants in the non-threatening conditions. When threatening conditions converge, performance of low-SES students is at its worst level. These results help us better understand the role stereotyping plays in the
academic performance of low-SES students, and may partly explain the disparity on standardized test scores between low- and high-SES students.

Socioeconomic Disparities Affect Prefrontal Function in Children.Full Text Available By: Kishiyama, Mark M.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Jimenez, Amy M.; Perry, Lee M.; Knight, Robert T.. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, Jun2009, Vol. 21 Issue 6, p1106-1115, 10p, 1 Diagram, 2 Graphs

Social inequalities have profound effects on the physical and mental health of children. Children from low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds perform below children from higher SES backgrounds on tests of intelligence and
academic achievement, and recent findings indicate that low SES (LSES) children are impaired on behavioral measures of prefrontal function. However, the influence of socioeconomic disparity on direct measures of neural activity is unknown. Here, we provide electrophysiological evidence indicating that prefrontal function is altered in LSES children. We found that prefrontal-dependent electrophysiological measures of attention were reduced in LSES compared to high SES (HSES) children in a pattern similar to that observed in patients with lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) damage. These findings provide neurophysiological evidence that social inequalities are associated with alterations in PFC function in LSES children. There are a number of factors associated with LSES rearing conditions that may have contributed to these results such as greater levels of stress and lack of access to cognitively stimulating materials and experiences. Targeting specific prefrontal processes affected by socioeconomic disparity could be helpful in developing intervention programs for LSES children.

INFANT MENTAL DEVELOPMENT AND NEUROLOGICAL STATUS, FAMILY SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS, AND INTELLIGENCE AT AGE FOUR. Ireton, Harold; Thwing, Edward; Gravem, Howard. Child Development, Dec70, Vol. 41 Issue 4, p937-945, 9p; DOI: 10.1111/1467-8624.ep10403360

The relationship of infant mental development (Bayley Mental Scale, 8 months) to 4-year Binet IQ was explored in the context of the study sample's neurological and socioeconomic characteristics for a sample of 536 full-term children. The Minnesota sample was approximately normal or average in terms of infant mental scores, infant neurological status, socioeconomic status (SES), and 4-year IQ. The SES showed the highest relationship to 4-year IQ (R for males of .43, females .38) but infant mental score also showed meaningful correlation with 4-year IQ (R for males of .28, females .23). The SES showed no correlation with infant mental scores. Categorical analysis showed that low mental score was a better predictor of low 4-year IQ (IQ less than 85) than was low SES. High SES was a better predictor of high 4-year IQ (IQ greater than 115) than was high mental score.


Ethnic, gender, and socio-economic group differences in academic performance and secondary school selection: A longitudinal analysis. Frederickson, Norah; Petrides, K.V.. Learning & individual differences, Mar2008, Vol. 18 Issue 2, p144-151, 8p; DOI: 10.1016/j.lindif.2005.09.001

This study examined gender, socio-economic (SES), and ethnic group differences in academic performance (measured at 14 and 16 years) in a sample of 517 British pupils (mean age=16.5 years). White pupils outperformed their Black and Pakistani counterparts and high SES pupils consistently outperformed their low SES counterparts. Results from two Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) models showed that controlling for IQ variance minimizes these group differences. The MIMIC models also revealed that Pakistani pupils and girls tend to underperform academically relative to White pupils and boys, respectively, at 14 years, once IQ and SES have been partialed out. These and other, more specific, findings are discussed with reference to predictive test bias, selection and streaming procedures, and implications for educational policy.


Socioeconomic status and intelligence: why test scores do not equal merit. Croizet, Jean-Claude; Dutrévis, Marion. Journal of poverty, 2004, Vol. 8 Issue 3, p91-107, 17p; DOI: 10.1300/J134v08n03-05

Students from low socioeconomic backgrounds perform worse on standardized tests than other students. Two experiments investigated whether the testing situation per se contributes to the relationship between social class and intellectual achievement. In study 1, students from low or high social class took a GRE-like test that was described either as diagnostic or not of intellectual ability. When described as a measure of intellectual ability, low socioeconomic status (SES) participants performed worse than high SES participants. However, when the identical test was presented as nondiagnostic of intellectual ability, low SES participants scored as high as their SES peers. Study 2 extended this finding to an IQ-like test, the Advanced
Progressive Matrices Test. The implications of these results with regards to the meaning of the relationship between social class and test scores are discussed.

Factors of a low-SES household: what aids academic achievement? Milne, Allison; Plourde, Lee A. journal of instructional psychology, Sep2006, Vol. 33 Issue 3, p183-193, 11p

The home factors of low-SES primary students, having high academic achievement, were investigated. Six second-grade students were identified as living in low-SES homes and qualifying for free and reduced lunch, while also having high academic achievement. Their primary caretakers were interviewed in order to investigate the factors within their homes that aided academic achievement. The results of this qualitative study exhibited that none of these high achieving second-grade students had home factors that were typical of low-SES home environments. Information was gathered through interviews, observations, and various documents. The interviews were semi-structured and evolved throughout the study. After the audio-recorded interviews were transcribed and examined, four common themes emerged: (a) educational resources/influences, (b) the mother's education, (c) relationships, and (d) causes of child's success. The results of this study have implications for all educators.


What we can do about achievement disparities. Lubienski, Sarah Theule. educational leadership, Nov2007, Vol. 65 Issue 3, p54-59, 6p

The article discusses the achievement gap in mathematics education in the U.S. Low socioeconomic status (SES) students and minority students do not achieve the same results as other students, despite reforms in math education as implemented by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). It presents examples of minority and low SES students' responses to various math word problems, showing the minority and low SES students to use common sense more than math problem solving skills. Suggestions for schools on how to decrease the achievement gaps are also included, such as using a contextual approach in math education, using complex problems and exercises, and working with parents of low SES and minority students.


Measurement of the socio-economic status of australian higher education students. McMillan, Julie; Western, John. Higher Education, Mar2000, Vol. 39 Issue 2, p223-247, 25p, 7 Charts

The underrepresentation of persons from socio-economically disadvantaged backgrounds in higher education in countries such as Australia is of policy concern. In order to be able to identify such individuals for targeted interventions and to monitor their participation rates, it is necessary to have an accurate, simple to administer, and relatively inexpensive method of measuring students' socio-economic characteristics. We demonstrate that the postcode methodology currently used by the Australian Department of Education,
Training and Youth Affairs (DETYA) for monitoring purposes, while being relatively simple and inexpensive to administer, is subject to considerable error. A student is allocated the `average' socio-economic status (SES) of all persons living within their residential postcode area, but areas can contain a mix of people from low, medium and high socio-economic backgrounds. In order to identify more accurately low SES students, we develop measures based upon the characteristics of individual students, rather than the characteristics of the area in which they reside. These new measures are based upon the results of the Participation in Higher Education Survey. This survey was conducted in the second half of 1997 and was based upon a sample of approximately 3000 first year students enrolled at a range of campuses throughout one Australian State. Our findings suggest that individual-based measures relating to the occupation and education of parents at the time when the student was in high school are appropriate for the classification of both recent school leavers and mature aged students. Together, these characteristics represent the family socio-economic situation while the student was attending secondary school.

Socioeconomic status and college: How SES affects college experiences and outcomes. MaryBeth Walpole. Review of Higher Education, Fall2003, Vol. 27 Issue 1, p45, 29p

This study investigated college experiences and outcomes for low and high SES students utilizing data from a longitudinal database. Low SES students engaged in fewer extracurricular activities, worked more, studied less, and reported lower GPAs than their high SES peers. Nine years after entering college, the low SES students had lower incomes, educational attainment, and
graduate school attendance than high SES students. These experiential and outcome differences are tied to differences in cultural capital and habitus.

A closer look at black-white mathematics gaps: intersections of race and SES in NAEP achievement and instructional practices data. Lubienski, Sarah Theule. Journal of negro education, Fall2002, Vol. 71 Issue 4, p269, 19p, 4 Charts, 2 Graphs

Drawing from the 1990, 1996, and 2000 National Assessment of Educational Progress, this study examines Black-White disparities in 4[sup th]-, 8[sup th]-, and 12[sup th]-grade mathematics achievement and instruction. Substantial Black-White achievement gaps were identified, such as 12[sup th]-grade Black students scoring below 8[sup th]-grade White students. Furthermore, an analysis of race and SES together in the 1996 data revealed that student SES failed to account for much of the Black-White achievement gaps. Several instruction-related factors were also found to differ by race even after controlling for students' SES. This study provides evidence that, despite current reforms promoting highquality mathematics education for all, Black students of both low and high SES are being left behind.

Castellano, J. A. (1998). Identifying and assessing gifted and talentedbilingual Hispanic students. ERIC clearinghouse on rural education and smallschools, ED42311104.

Irby, B. J., & Lara- Alecio,R. (1996). Attributes of hispanic giftedbilingual students as perceived by bilingual educators in texas. TABEJournal, 11.



Carmen, C. A. (2011). Socioeconomic status effects on using the naglieri nonverbal ability test (NNAT) to identify the gifted/talented. Gifted Child Quarterly, 55.
The Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test (NNAT) is said to be a culturally neutral measure of ability that assesses both majority and minority students equally. Although research has examined the effects of ethnicity and gender on NNAT performance, little published research has examined the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and NNAT performance. Correlations and multiple regression were used to examine the relationships between ethnicity, SES, and NNAT performance in a large kindergarten sample. The results suggest a significant relationship between ethnicity, SES, and NNAT performance. Even after adjusting for ethnic differences, children from low-SES families were half as likely as other children to be identified.

Profiles of cognitive developmental performance in gifted children: effect of bilingualism, monolingualism, and socioeconomic status factors. Virginia gonzalez. Journal of hispanic higher education (1538-1927) m5. vol.5,Iss.2;p.142-170

This quasi-experimental research studies the effect of socioeconomic status (SES), language learning, and culture on gifted Hispanic children's performance in an alternative developmental scale (Qualitative Use of English and Spanish Tasks) of cognitive ability for generating developmental profiles. Results showthe effect of SES and language learning across linguistic and cultural factors, revealing developmental continuities and discontinuities. Theoretical and practical educational implications are to include and generate developmentally appropriate assessments that uncover cultural-linguistic giftedness.